Rev. 21 Sep 2011

Tara Oceans Expedition Ports of Call

This page gives visit dates, general information, and links to further information about each of the "ports of call" or stopovers in the Tara Oceans Expedition. There are also links to the Tara Expedition Logs that describe the crew's activities onshore, interactions with local people, and local conservation issues. Information will be added as the expedition continues.

Tara Oceans Expedition map

Open enlarged Expedition Map (opens in a separate window)

Except where other links are given below, narrative information is adapted from Wikipedia.

On the Tara Interactive Map (external link), with Google Earth loaded on your computer, you can click on the ports of call and see a Google Earth image of the area.

Visit the Gallery (external link) on the Tara Oceans website to see more photos and videos of the Tara's stopovers.

Open Ports of Call list (opens in popup window)

Jump to the latest port (in this page)

First 15 ports of call: The Mediterranean Basin has been designated a "biodiversity hotspot" priority area by Conservation International.

The flora of the Mediterranean Basin is dramatic. Its 22,500 endemic vascular plant species are more than four times the number found in all the rest of Europe; the hotspot also supports many endemic reptile species.

As Europe's vacation destination, populations of threatened species are increasingly fragmented and isolated to make way for resort development and infrastructure. The Mediterranean monk-seal, the barbary macaque and the Iberian lynx, which is Critically Endangered, are among the region's imperiled species.

IUCN video on Important plant areas in the Mediterranean

    F. Latreille/Fonds Tara

  1. Lorient, France
    1. 5 September 2009
    2. Initial Launch
    3. Tara Logs: Onshore , Launch
    4. Wikipedia: Lorient
    5. Wikipedia: Brittany
    6. Wikipedia: France
    7. CIA World Factbook: France
    8. Language: French, Breton
    9. Population: 186,144 in urban area
    10. Port on Bay of Biscay (Atlantic)
    11. In attempts to destroy German submarine pens (U-boat bases) and their supply lines, most of this city was destroyed by Allied bombing during World War II. Thus, today's Lorient reflects an architectural style of the 1950s.
  2. Tara at Lisbon

    S. Bollet/Fonds Tara

  3. Lisbon (Lisboa), Portugal
    1. 10-12 September 2009
    2. Tara Log: Busy
    3. Wikipedia: Lisbon
    4. Wikipedia: Portugal
    5. CIA World Factbook: Portugal
    6. http://www.cm-lisboa.pt (city website, in Portuguese)
    7. Language: Portuguese
    8. Population: 2,800,000 (Lisbon Metropolitan Area)
    9. Port on Atlantic Ocean
    10. Capital of Portugal
    11. Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of its wealthiest colony of Brazil in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.
    12. Westernmost capital of a mainland European country.
    13. Institute of Oceanography, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, http://co.fc.ul.pt/, http://www.medclivar.eu/institutions/Institute of Oceanography.htm
    14. MedCLIVAR is an international programme which aims to coordinate and promote the study of the Mediterranean climate. http://www.medclivar.eu
    15. Lisbon Oceanarium, http://www.oceanario.pt/
    16. Monastery of the Hieronymites and Tower of Belém in Lisbon are a UNESCO World (cultural) Heritage Site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/263. The cultural landscape of Sintra is another in the area: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/723
  4. Tangier (Tanger, Tanja), Morocco
    1. 16-19 September 2009
    2. Tara Log: Conferences
    3. Wikipedia: Tangier
    4. Wikipedia: Morocco
    5. CIA World Factbook: Morocco
    6. Language: The inhabitants of Tangiers speak either Moroccan Darija or Tarifit Berber in their daily lives. Written Arabic is used in government documentation and on road signs together with French. French is used in universities and large businesses.
    7. Population: about 700,000 (2008 census)
    8. Port on Strait of Gibraltar
    9. Tangier was made an international zone in 1923 under the joint administration of France, Spain, and Britain under an international convention signed in Paris on December 18, 1923. Tangier joined with the rest of Morocco following the restoration of full sovereignty in 1956.
  5. Tara at Algiers

    S. Bollet/Fonds Tara

  6. Algiers (Alger), Algeria
    1. 24-26 September 2009
    2. Wikipedia: Algiers
    3. Wikipedia: Algeria
    4. CIA World Factbook: Algeria
    5. Language: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
    6. Population: 2,072,993 (2007 estimates)
    7. Port on Bay of Algiers, Alboran Sea (of Mediterranean Sea)
    8. Capital of Algeria, largest city
    9. The Kasbah of Algiers is a UNESCO World (cultural) Heritage Site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/565.
  7. Barcelona, Spain
    1. 1-3 October 2009
    2. Wikipedia: Barcelona
    3. Wikipedia: Spain
    4. CIA World Factbook: Spain
    5. Language: Spanish, Catalan, both official
    6. Population: about 5 million in metropolitan area (2007)
    7. Port on Balearic Sea (of Mediterranean Sea)
    8. Capital of Catalonia and second-largest city in Spain.
    9. One of the most densely populated cities in Europe. The city's highest density is found at and around the neighbourhood of la Sagrada Família where four of the citys most densely populated neighbourhoods are located side by side, all with a population density above 50,000 inhabitants per square kilometer.
    10. Barcelona is famous for its architecture. Palau de la Música Catalana and Hospital de Sant Pau by the Catalan art nouveau architect Lluís Domènech i Montaner are a UNESCO World (cultural) Heritage Site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/804, as are the Works of Antoni Gaudí in or near Barcelona: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/320.
  8. Tara at Nice

    S. Bollet/Fonds Tara

  9. Nice, France
    1. 6-10 October 2009
    2. Wikipedia: Nice
    3. Language: French
    4. Population: 955,000 in the urban area
    5. Port on Balearic Sea (of Mediterranean Sea)
    6. Observatoire Océanologique de Villefranche sur Mer, http://www.obs-vlfr.fr/
    7. The Observatoire de Nice (Nice Observatory) is located on the summit of Mont Gros. The observatory was initiated in 1879 by the banker Raphaël Bischoffsheim. The architect was Charles Garnier, and Gustave Eiffel designed the main dome. The 76-cm (30-inch) refractor telescope that became operational in 1888 was at that time the world's largest telescope. It was outperformed one year later by the 36-inch (91-cm) refractor at the Lick Observatory at University of California, Santa Cruz. As a scientific institution, the Nice Observatory no longer exists. It was merged with CERGA in 1988 to form the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur. http://www.oca.eu/
  10. Tara at tunis

    S. Bollet/Fonds Tara

  11. Tunis, Tunisia
    1. 15-17 October 2009
    2. Wikipedia: Tunis
    3. Wikipedia: Tunisia
    4. CIA World Factbook: Tunisia
    5. Population: 3,980,500 in the greater Tunis area
    6. Language: Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce)
    7. Port on Gulf of Tunis, Mediterranean Sea (city is behind the Lake of Tunis and the port of La Goulette (Halq al Wadi))
    8. Capital of Tunisia
    9. French protectorate from 1881 to 1956.
    10. The Medina of Tunis is a UNESCO World (cultural) Heritage Site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/36. Also nearby is the Archaeological Site of Carthage: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/37.
    11. Ichkeul National Park, to the west is another UNESCO World Heritage Site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/8.
  12. Tara at Naples

    D. Sauveur/Fonds Tara

  13. Naples (Napoli), Italy
    1. 22-24 October 2009
    2. Tara Log: Batteries
    3. Wikipedia: Naples
    4. Wikipedia: Italy
    5. CIA World Factbook: Italy
    6. Language: Italian
    7. Population: 963,357 (city)
    8. Port on Tyrrhenian Sea (of Mediterranean Sea)
    9. The Historic Centre of Naples is a UNESCO World (cultural) Site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/726, as are the nearby 18th-Century Royal Palace at Caserta with the Park, the Aqueduct of Vanvitelli, and the San Leucio Complex: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/549 and the Archaeological Areas of Pompei, Herculaneum and Torre Annunziata: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/829.
    10. Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn of Naples is among the top research institutions in the world in the fields of marine biology and ecology. Established in 1872 by the German scientist Anton Dohrn, a student of Ernst Haeckel, it was founded with the mission to promote basic research by hosting scientists that needed marine organisms for their studies, and it is now based on the research carried out by its own staff. The Stazione Zoological also houses a public aquarium and a sea turtle rescue and rehabilitation center.
    11. Vesuvio National Park, surrounding the volcano, Mt. Vesuvius, is also nearby: http://www.parks.it/parco.nazionale.vesuvio/Eindex.php, http://www.vesuvioinrete.it/e_parco.htm
  14. Tara at Valletta

    S. Bollet/Fonds Tara

  15. Valletta, Malta
    1. 29-31 October 2009
    2. Tara Log: Charybdis and Scylla, UN Environmental Program
    3. Wikipedia: Valletta
    4. Wikipedia: Malta
    5. CIA World Factbook: Malta
    6. Population: 368,250 in the urban zone
    7. Language: Maltese and English (official)
    8. Valletta peninsula has two natural harbours, Marsamxett and the Grand Harbour. The Grand Harbour is Malta's major port, with unloading quays at Marsa. A cruise-liner terminal is located along the old seawall of the Valletta Waterfront. On Mediterranean Sea.
    9. De facto capital city of Malta.
    10. Malta was under Great Britain/U.K. from 1816 to 1964.
    11. The city of Valletta is a UNESCO World (cultural) Heritage Site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/131.
  16. Tripoli, Libya
    1. 5-8 November 2009
    2. Tara Log: Trials and Tribulations
    3. Wikipedia: Tripoli
    4. CIA World Factbook: Libya
    5. Population: metropolitan area (district area) has a population of 1,065,405 (2006 census)
    6. Language: Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities
    7. Port on Mediterranean Sea
    8. Capital of Libya
  17. Tara at Dubrovnik

    S. Bollet/Fonds Tara

  18. Dubrovnik, Croatia
    1. 19-21 November 2009
    2. Tara Log: Unloading Tara's Treasures
    3. Wikipedia: Dubrovnik
    4. Wikipedia: Croatia
    5. CIA World Factbook: Croatia
    6. Population: 43,770 in 2001
    7. Language: Croatian
    8. Port on Adriatic Sea (of Mediterranean Sea)
    9. Old walled city is a UNESCO World (cultural) Heritage Site, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/95.
    10. Arboretum Trsteno, the oldest arboretum in the world, dating back to before 1492.
    11. Northeast of the city, Durmitor National Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/100.
  19. Tara at Corinth

    Tara in the Corinth Canal, on the way to Athens

    S. Bollet/Fonds Tara

  20. Athens (Athina), Greece
    1. 26-28 November 2009
    2. Tara Log: Corinth Canal
    3. Wikipedia: Athens
    4. Wikipedia: Greece
    5. CIA World Factbook: Greece
    6. Population: 3,130,841 in urban area (in 2001)
    7. Language: Greek
    8. Port on the Aegean Sea (of Mediterranean Sea)
    9. Capital of Greece.
    10. The Acropolis is a UNESCO World (cultural) Heritage Site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/404.
  21. Limassol, Cyprus
    1. 7-9 December 2009
    2. Wikipedia: Limassol
    3. Wikipedia: Cyprus
    4. CIA World Factbook: Cyprus
    5. Population: 228,000 (2008)
    6. Language: Greek, Turkish, English
    7. Port on Akrotiri Bay, Mediterranean Sea
    8. The biggest port in the Mediterranean transit trade.
  22. Tara at Beirut

    D. Sauveur/Fonds Tara

  23. Beirut, Lebanon
    1. 10-12 December 2009
    2. Tara Log: Hope
    3. Wikipedia: Beirut
    4. Wikipedia: Lebanon
    5. CIA World Factbook: Lebanon
    6. Population: ~2,000,000 (no population census has been taken in Lebanon since 1932)
    7. Language: Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
    8. Port on Mediterranean Sea
    9. Capital of Lebanon.
  24. Alexandria, Egypt
    1. 17-20 December 2009
    2. Wikipedia: Alexandria
    3. Wikipedia: Egypt
    4. CIA World Factbook: Egypt
    5. Population: 4.1 million
    6. Language: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
    7. Port on Mediterranean Sea
    8. Egypt's largest seaport: Wikipedia: Alexandria Port
    9. The archeological site of Abu Mena is a UNESCO World (cultural) Heritage Site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/90, and is on the list of sites that are in danger of decay or destruction.
  25. Port Said, Egypt – Port Suez, Egypt via Suez Canal
    1. 21-22 December 2009
    2. Tara Log: The Ferry, Suez Canal
    3. Wikipedia: Port Said, Egypt
    4. Wikipedia: Suez
    5. Wikipedia: Suez Canal
  26. Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt
    1. 24 December 2009 – 8 January 2010
    2. Tara Log: Sinai's Blue Moon
    3. Wikipedia: Sharm el-Sheikh
    4. Population: 35,000 (2008)
    5. Language: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
    6. Port on Sharem-al-Maya Bay on Red Sea
    7. At southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula
    8. Ras Mohammed, at the southern-most tip of the peninsula, has been designated a national park, serving to protect the area's wildlife as well as its natural landscape, shoreline and coral reef. Wikipedia: Ras Mohammed
    9. The Nabq Managed Resource Protected Area is a 600 square kilometres (230 sq mi) area of mangroves, coral reefs, fertile dunes, birds and wildlife. http://www.geographia.com/egypt/sinai/protectedarea.htm
    10. The city has played host to a number of important Middle Eastern peace conferences.
  27. Following 2 ports of call: The Horn of Africa (including the southern coasts of the Arabian Peninsula) has been designated a "biodiversity hotspot" priority area by Conservation International.

    The arid Horn of Africa has been a renowned source of biological resources for thousands of years. One of only two hotspots that is entirely arid, the area is home to a number of endemic and threatened antelope, notably threatened species like the beira, the dibatag, and Speke's gazelle.

    This hotspot also holds more endemic reptiles than any other region in Africa. Other distinctive endemics include the Somali wild ass and the sacred baboon.

    Unfortunately, The Horn of Africa is also one of the most degraded hotspots in the world, with only about 5 percent of its original habitat remaining. Overgrazing is the most destructive force, but charcoal harvesting along with unstable government control have also been major problems.

  28. Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
    1. 14-16 January 2010
    2. Wikipedia: Jeddah
    3. Wikipedia: Saudi Arabia
    4. CIA World Factbook: Saudi Arabia
    5. Population: 4,500,000 in the metro area
    6. Language: Arabic
    7. Port on the Red Sea.
    8. Largest sea port on the Red Sea, primary port for Muslim pilgrims making the required Hajj to Mecca.
    9. Second largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh.
  29. Tara at Djibouti

    J. Girardot/Fonds Tara

  30. Djibouti, Djibouti
    1. 24-27 January and 12-13 February 2010
    2. Tara Log: Bab-El-Mandeb, the Gate of Tears, Port Call
    3. Wikipedia: Djibouti (city)
    4. Wikipedia: Djibouti
    5. CIA World Factbook: Djibouti
    6. Population: 475,322 (city)
    7. Language: French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar
    8. Port on Gulf of Tadjoura on the Gulf of Aden.
    9. Capital and largest city of the Republic of Djibouti
    10. On a peninsula that divides the Gulf of Tadjoura from the Gulf of Aden at the west side of the Arabian Sea.
    11. Founded as a seaport in 1888 by the Spaniard Eloi Pino, Djibouti became the capital of French Somaliland in 1891, replacing Tadjourah. It remained the capital for the succeeding colonial government of French Territory of the Afars and the Issas, as well as for the independent country of Djibouti.
  31. Tara at Abu Dhabi

    J. Bastion/Fonds Tara

  32. Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
    1. 27 February – 2 March 2010
    2. Tara Log: Tara generation, Stopover
    3. Wikipedia: Abu Dhabi
    4. Wikipedia: United Arab Emirates
    5. CIA World Factbook: United Arab Emirates
    6. Population: 860,000 (2008)
    7. Language: Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu (The majority of the inhabitants of Abu Dhabi are expatriate workers from India, Pakistan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Philippines, the United Kingdom and various countries from across the Arab world.)
    8. Port on a T-shaped island jutting into the Persian Gulf from the central western coast
    9. Capital of and the second largest city in the United Arab Emirates
  33. Mascat (Masqat), Oman
    1. 5-8 March 2010
    2. Wikipedia: Muscat, Oman
    3. Wikipedia: Oman
    4. CIA World Factbook: Oman
    5. Population: 1,090,797 (2008)
    6. Language: Arabic (official), English, Balochi, Swahili and South Asian languages such as Hindi, Gujarati, Malayalam and Urdu
    7. Port along the Gulf of Oman on the Arabian Sea, and near the Straits of Hormuz
    8. Capital and largest city of Oman
    9. Muscat's notability as a port was acknowledged as early as the 1st century CE by Greek geographers Ptolemy, who referred to it as Cryptus Portus (the Hidden Port), and by Pliny the Elder, who called it Amithoscuta.
    10. Natural History Museum, Aquarium http://www.omanet.om/english/tourism/entert/museums.asp
    11. Sultan Qaboos University, http://www.squ.edu.om/
  34. Tara at Mumbai

    Fonds Tara

  35. Mumbai (was Bombay), India
    1. 24-27 March 2010
    2. Tara Log: Economic and cultural capital of India
    3. Wikipedia: Mumbai
    4. Wikipedia: India
    5. CIA World Factbook: India
    6. Population: approximately 14 million -- most populous city in the world
    7. Language: Hindi, Persian, Urdu, Marathi
    8. Port on Arabian Sea
    9. Originally 7 islands, fishing communities. Under Portuguese control from 1534. Leased to the British East India Company in 1668. In 1661, given over to British control. Indian independence in 1950.
    10. From 1782 onwards, the city was reshaped with large-scale civil engineering projects. The islands were linked by causeways in a project completed in 1784. By 1845, the seven islands were coalesced into a single landmass.
    11. Sanjay Gandhi National Park is 104 km2 (40 sq mi) and is surrounded on three sides by the city. Wikipedia: Sanjay Gandhi National Park
    12. The Elephanta Caves on the Island of Elephanta are a UNESCO World (cultural) Heritage Site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/244.
    13. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) is a UNESCO World (cultural) Heritage Site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/945.
  36. Tara at Maldives

    J. Girardot/Tara Oceans

  37. Malé, Maldives
    1. 6-9 April 2010
    2. Tara Log: A paradise slipping under the sea, Dry dock in paradise , Cousteau
    3. Wikipedia: Malé
    4. Wikipedia: Maldives
    5. CIA World Factbook: Maldives
    6. Population: 103,693 (2006)
    7. Language: Dhivehi (Mahl) (official)
    8. Island (coral) in the Laccadive Sea of Indian Ocean.
    9. Capital and most populous city in the Republic of Maldives.
    10. Malé is an island at the southern edge of North Malé Atoll (Kaafu Atoll). The island has been considerably expanded through landfilling operations.
    11. The Maldives consists of approximately 1,190 coral islands grouped in a double chain of 26 atolls, in the Laccadive Sea.
    12. The Island of Malé is the second most densely populated island worldwide. Water is provided from desalinated ground water; the water works pumps brackish water from 50-60m deep wells in the city and desalinates that using reverse osmosis. Electric power is generated in the city using diesel generators. Sewage is pumped unprocessed into the sea. Solid waste is transported to nearby islands, where it is used to fill in lagoons.
    13. Over the last century, sea levels have risen about 20 centimetres (8 in); further rises of the ocean could threaten the existence of Maldives, being the lowest country in the world, with a maximum natural ground level of only 2.3 metres (7 ft 7 in), with the average being only 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in) above sea level. However, around 1970, the sea level there dropped 20–30 centimetres (8–12 in). In November 2008, President Mohamed Nasheed announced plans to look into purchasing new land in India, Sri Lanka, and Australia because of his concerns about global warming and the possibility of much of the islands being inundated with water from rising sea levels. Current estimates place sea level rise at 59 centimetres (23 in) by the year 2100. Wikipedia: Maldives Environmental issues
  38. Following 4 ports of call: Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands (the Comoros, Seychelles, Mauritius, and Réunion) have been designated as a "biodiversity hotspot" priority area by Conservation International.

    Madagascar and its neighboring island groups have an astounding total of eight plant families, four bird families, and five primate families that live nowhere else on Earth. Madagascar's more than 50 lemur species are the island's charismatic worldwide ambassadors for conservation, although, tragically, 15 more species have been driven to extinction since humans arrived.

    The Seychelles, Comoros and Mascarene islands in the Indian Ocean between them support a number of Critically Endangered bird species.

    The Seychelles are also home to the only endemic family of amphibians: the Sooglossidae, and the Aldabra giant tortoise, one of the regions most heralded endemic reptiles.

  39. Port Louis, île Maurice, Mauritius
    1. 6-8 May 2010
    2. Tara Log: Crown of Birds Archipelago , Kite surfing is dangerous to teeth , Fishing in St. Brandon
    3. Wikipedia: Port Louis
    4. Wikipedia: Mauritius
    5. CIA World Factbook: Mauritius
    6. Language: French
    7. Population: 147,688 (2003 census)
    8. Island (volcanic) in Indian Ocean
    9. Capital and largest city and port of Mauritius.
    10. Uninhabited by humans until the 17th century, the island was ruled first by the Dutch and then by the French after the former abandoned it. The British took control during the Napoleonic Wars and Mauritius became independent from the UK in 1968.
    11. Mauritius was the only known habitat of the extinct dodo bird. Wikipedia: Dodo
    12. Mauritius Oceanography Institute: http://moi.gov.mu/
    13. Natural History Museum: http://maurice.runweb.com/lang-EN-page-1462-2V-page,Discoveries-at-the-Natural-History-Museum.html, http://www.tourism-mauritius.mu/pages/info/index.php?lang=2&category_id=6&info_id=13
    14. Aapravasi Ghat, the first site chosen by the British Government in 1834 for the ‘great experiment' in the use of indentured, rather than slave labour, is a UNESCO World (cultural) Heritage Site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1227. Mauritius was an important stopover in the eastern slave trade until the early 19th century.
  40. Tara at Réunion

    S. Bollet/Fonds Tara

  41. St. Denis, Réunion (France)
    1. 12-15 May 2010
    2. Tara Log: Heading for Tromelin , Facing Tromelin
    3. Wikipedia: Saint-Denis, Réunion
    4. Wikipedia: Réunion
    5. Language: French (official), Réunion Creole
    6. Population: 158,139 in urban area (1999)
    7. Island (volcanic) in Indian Ocean
    8. Is the préfecture (administrative capital) of the French overseas region and department of Réunion, most populous in the French "overseas departments" (Martinique, Guadeloupe, Réunion, French Guiana, and in 2011, Mayotte)
    9. The Portuguese are thought to have been the first European visitors, finding it uninhabited in 1635. Colonization started in 1665 by the French East India Company. From the 17th to the 19th centuries, French immigration supplemented by influxes of Africans, Chinese, Malays, and Indians gave the island its ethnic mix.
    10. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 reduced the importance of the island as a stopover on the East Indies trade route.
    11. Pitons, cirques and remparts of Reunion Island are a UNESCO World Heritage Site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1317.
  42. Antsiranana (was Diego-Suarez), Madagascar
    1. 20-23 May 2010
    2. Tara Log: to Madagascar, Pirates?
    3. Wikipedia: Antsiranana
    4. Wikipedia: Madagascar
    5. CIA World Factbook: Madagascar
    6. Language: Malagasy, French, English (all official)
    7. Population: not available
    8. Port on Antsiranana (or Diego-Suarez) Bay, in the Indian Ocean
    9. On northern tip of island of Madagascar. A good natural harbor, but until recently no good road south.
    10. Most archaeologists believe Madagascar was first inhabited sometime 500-200 AD, by Austronesian peoples arriving on outrigger canoes from Borneo and Sulawesi in the Indonesian archipelago. Soon afterwards, Bantu migrants crossed the Mozambique Channel and the population of the island began to mix. Later Arab and East African migrants were added to the mix. Madagascar was ruled by the local Merina kingdom in the 19th century and was part of the French colonial empire from 1890 to 1960, when the current Republic of Madagascar became independent.
    11. Named Diego-Suarez prior to 1975, named for Diogo Soares, a Portuguese navigator who visited the bay in 1543.
    12. The Rainforests of the Atsinanana comprise six national parks distributed along the northeastern part of the island. They are designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1257.
  43. Tara at Mayotte

    Fonds Tara

  44. Mamoudzou, Mayotte (France)
    1. 27-30 May 2010 and 10, 18-25 June 2010
    2. Tara Log: Coral mission, Discovering Mayotte, Islet ahoy, Scattered Islands
    3. Wikipedia: Mamoudzou
    4. Wikipedia: Mayotte
    5. CIA World Factbook: Mayotte
    6. Language: French (official), Shimaore (a native language, a Swahili dialect heavily influenced by French and Malagasy), Shindzwani (spoken in the Comoros, Madagascar, Reunion), Kibushi (a western dialect of the Malagasy language (the language of Madagascar) heavily influenced by Shimaore and Arabic)
    7. Population: 53,022 (2007)
    8. Island (volcanic) in Mozambique Channel of the Indian Ocean
    9. The territory is geographically part of the Comoro Islands, but has been politically separate since a 1974 referendum in which it elected to remain under French rule.
    10. The first human inhabitants of the Comoro Islands are thought to have been African and Austronesian settlers, travelling by boat. They settled there no later than the sixth century AD, the date of the earliest known archaeological site, found on Nzwani, to the northwest of Mayotte. The islands of Comoros became populated by a succession of diverse groups from the coast of Africa, the Persian Gulf, the Malay Archipelago, and Madagascar. Swahili settlers first reached the islands as a part of the greater Bantu expansion that took place in Africa throughout the first millennium. France first established colonial rule in the Comoros in 1841. The Comoros served as a way station for merchants sailing to the Far East and India until the opening of the Suez Canal significantly reduced traffic passing through the Mozambique Channel.
    11. IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) scientists were part of the Tara visit to investigate coral bleaching on the reefs of Mayotte. The team found that bleaching here, which was first reported in March this year, is the worst seen in the Indian Ocean. http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/marine/?6281/taracoral
  45. Tara at Cape Town

    H. Bourmaud/Fonds Tara

  46. Cape Town, South Africa
    1. 16 July – 5 September 2010
    2. Tara Log: After 300 days of sailing , Visits from students, Submarine base, Cape of Storms, Cape Town , Setting off
    3. Wikipedia: Cape Town
    4. Wikipedia: South Africa
    5. CIA World Factbook: South Africa
    6. Language: Afrikaans, Xhosa, English (South Africa has eleven official languages)
    7. Population: 3.5 million (2007 est.)
    8. Port on Table Bay of South Atlantic Ocean
    9. Provincial capital and primate city of the Western Cape, as well as the legislative capital of South Africa. Second-most populous city in South Africa, and the largest in land area.
    10. South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological sites in the world. Extensive fossil remains at the Sterkfontein, Kromdraai and Makapansgat caves suggest that various australopithecines existed in South Africa from about three million years ago. These were succeeded by various species of Homo, including Homo habilis, Homo erectus and modern humans, Homo sapiens. Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for more than 100,000 years.
      At the time of European contact, the dominant indigenous peoples were tribes who had migrated from other parts of Africa about one thousand years before. From the 4th-5th century CE, Bantu-speaking tribes had steadily moved south, where they displaced, conquered and assimilated original Khoikhoi and San peoples of southern Africa. At the time of European contact, the two major groups were the Xhosa and Zulu peoples.
    11. The city of Cape Town was originally developed by the Dutch East India Company as a victualling (supply) station for Dutch ships sailing to Eastern Africa, India, and the Far East. Jan van Riebeeck's arrival on 6 April 1652 established the first permanent European settlement in South Africa. Labor shortages in this era prompted the city to import slaves from Indonesia and Madagascar. Britain captured Cape Town in 1795, and conflicts over British and Dutch control continued until 1814, when Cape Town was permanently ceded to Britain.
      The discovery of diamonds in the late 19th century prompted a flood of immigrants to South Africa. The struggle to control these important economic resources was a factor between Europeans and the indigenous population, and also between the Boers (original Dutch, Flemish, German and French settlers) and the British. In 1931 the South African Union was effectively granted independence from the United Kingdom and became a nation within the British Commonwealth. In 1961, following a whites-only referendum, the country became a republic (with Cape Town as capital) and left the British Commonwealth.
      In the 1948 national elections, the National Party won on a platform of apartheid (racial segregation) and fully institutionalized the policy. Cape Town was home to many leaders of the anti-apartheid movement. On Robben Island, a former penitentiary island 10-kilometres from the city in Table Bay, many famous political prisoners were held for years. In 1990 the National Party government finally lifted the ban on the African National Congress and other political organisations and released Nelson Mandela from prison after twenty-seven years' incarceration. A negotiation process followed and the government repealed apartheid legislation. The first universal elections were held in 1994.
    12. The Cape Floristic Region has been designated a "biodiversity hotspot" priority area by Conservation International.
      Home to the greatest non-tropical concentration of higher plant species in the world, the region is the only hotspot that encompasses an entire floral kingdom, and holds five of South Africa's 12 endemic plant families and 160 endemic genera. The geometric tortoise, the Cape sugar-bird, and a number of antelope species are characteristic of the Cape Floristic hotspot.
  47. Tara at St. Helena

    V. Hilaire/Fonds Tara

  48. St. Helena Island (United Kingdom)
    1. Tara Log: Focus on St. Helena, Land of exile
    2. Wikipedia: Saint Helena
    3. Wikipedia: Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
    4. CIA World Factbook: Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha
    5. Language: English
    6. Island (volcanic) in South Atlantic Ocean
    7. The island was uninhabited when discovered by the Portuguese in 1502. It is one of the most isolated islands in the world. For centuries, it was an important stopover for ships sailing to Europe from Asia and South Africa. The British also used the island as a place of exile, most notably for Napoleon I, Dinuzulu kaCetshwayo and more than 5,000 Boer prisoners. Saint Helena is now Britain's second oldest remaining colony (after Bermuda).
  49. Ascension Island (United Kingdom)
    1. 2-3 October 2010
    2. Tara Log: Anchored at Ascension
    3. Wikipedia: Ascension Island
    4. Language: English
    5. Island (volcanic) in South Atlantic Ocean
    6. It is politically organized and governed as part of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha from the capital Saint Helena, an island 1,287 kilometres (800 mi) to the southeast.
    7. The Spanish explorer João da Nova, sailing for Portugal, is believed to be the first to discover the island (in 1501), but he did not report it. When in 1503 Afonso de Albuquerque, a Portuguese navigator sighted the island on Ascension Day in the church calendar, he named it for that day. Ascension Island was first inhabited in 1815, when the British garrisoned it as a precaution after imprisoning Napoleon I on St. Helena to the southeast.
  50. Tara at Rio de Janeiro

    V. Hilaire/Fonds Tara

  51. Rio de Janiero, Brazil
    1. 22-31 October 2010
    2. Tara log: Docked at Rio, Heads of Expedition Meet, Tara and Brazil
    3. Wikipedia: Rio de Janeiro
    4. Wikipedia: Brazil
    5. CIA World Factbook: Brazil
    6. Language: Portugese
    7. Population: 11,513,000 in metropolitan area (2008)
    8. Port on Guanabara Bay off the South Atlantic Ocean
    9. Second largest city of Brazil and the third largest metropolitan area in South America. Was the capital until 1960.
    10. Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on January 1, 1502 (hence Rio de Janeiro, "January River") by a Portuguese expedition. The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Puri, Botocudo and Maxakalí peoples.
      The city of Rio de Janeiro proper was founded by the Portuguese on March 1, 1565. In 1808, the Portuguese royal family and most of the associated Lisbon nobles, fleeing from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal, moved to Rio de Janeiro. The kingdom's capital was transferred to the city, which, thus, became the only European capital outside of Europe. When Prince Pedro I proclaimed the independence of Brazil in 1822, he decided to keep Rio de Janeiro as the capital of his new empire. Rio continued as the capital of Brazil after 1889, when the monarchy was replaced by a republic.
      In 1960 the capital of Brazil was officially moved inland from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília, which was built for that purpose.
      Rio de Janeiro is home to the largest Portuguese population outside of Lisbon in Portugal, especially due to immigration in the early 20th century.
    11. The Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden (Jardim Botânico), founded in 1808, displays over 6,000 species of plants. 60% of the property is natural Atlantic forest. The park is protected by the Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional and is included in the UNESCO Mata Atlântica Biosphere Reserve, designated in 1992.
    12. The Atlantic Forest region has been designated a "biodiversity hotspot" priority area by Conservation International.
      The Atlantic Forest of tropical South America boasts 20,000 plant species, 40 percent of which are endemic. Yet, less than 10 percent of the forest remains.
      More than two dozen Critically Endangered vertebrate species are clinging to survival in the region, including three species of lion tamarins and six bird species that are restricted to the small patch of forest near the Murici Ecological Station in northeastern Brazil.
      With almost 950 kinds of birds occurring in this hotspot, there are many unique species including the red-billed curassow, the Brazilian merganser, and numerous threatened parrot species. Beginning with sugarcane plantations and later, coffee plantations, this region has been losing habitat for hundreds of years. Now, with the increased expansion of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, the Atlantic Forest is facing severe pressure from the issues tied to urbanization.
  52. Tara at Buenos Aires

    V. Hilaire/Fonds Tara

  53. Buenos Aires, Argentina
    1. 15-24 November 2010
    2. Tara Log: Focus on Buenos Aires, Docking in Buenos Aires
    3. Wikipedia: Buenos Aires
    4. Wikipedia: Argentina
    5. CIA World Factbook: Argentina
    6. Language: Spanish
    7. Population: 2,129,819 in metro area (2001)
    8. Port at the outlet of the Río de la Plata on the South Atlantic Ocean
    9. Capital and largest city in Argentina.
    10. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre (literally "City of Our Lady Saint Mary of the Fair Winds") in 1536 by a Spanish expedition. Attacks by the indigenous peoples forced the settlers away, and in 1541 the site was abandoned. A second (and permanent) settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who arrived by sailing down the Paraná River from Asunción (now the capital of Paraguay). He dubbed the settlement "Santísima Trinidad" and its port became "Puerto de Santa María de los Buenos Aires."
      Formal independence for Argentina from Spain was declared in 1816.
      In the early 20th century, Argentina absorbed millions of immigrants, especially from Italy and Spain.
    11. The Plaza de Mayo square, surrounded by national and city government offices, has been central to many of Argentina's historical events.
    12. The Buenos Aires Ecological Reserve, declared a natural park in the 1980s, was formed by a land-fill of waste material of demolished buildings dumped in the river off Costanera Sud avenue to make way for highway construction throughout Buenos Aires in the 70s. Over time, sand and sediment began to build up and developed itself into a biodiversity sample of the native Llanura Pampeana ecosystem, the area now boasts a few trees, mostly willows, ceibos and acacias and is home to the city's only wild flamingos, egrets, ducks, parrots and nutrias. Unfortunately, the reserve's future is uncertain since commercial real estate schemes are a constant menace as well by a north-south expressway connector that may come by this area.
  54. Tara at Ushuaia

    V. Hilaire/Fonds Tara

  55. Ushuaia, Argentina
    1. 21-30 December 2010
    2. Tara Log: Visits in Tierra del Fuego
    3. Wikipedia: Ushuaia
    4. Wikipedia: Tierra del Fuego Province (Argentina)
    5. Language: Spanish
    6. Population: est. 64,000 in city (date?)
    7. Port in eastern part of the Isla Grande of Tierra del Fuego, on Beagle Channel between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans
    8. Indigenous people: The Selk'nam Indians, also called the Ona, first arrived in Tierra del Fuego about 10,000 years ago. The southern group of the Selk'nam, the Yámana, occupied what is now Ushuaia, living in continual conflict with the northern inhabitants of the island. The British ship HMS Beagle under the command of Captain Robert FitzRoy first reached the channel on January 29, 1833 during its maiden voyage surveying Tierra del Fuego.
    9. During the first half of the 20th century, the city centered around a prison built by the Argentine government to increase the Argentine population here and to ensure Argentine sovereignty over Tierra del Fuego. The prison population thus became forced colonists and spent much of their time building the town with timber from the forest around the prison. They also built a railway to the settlement, now a tourist attraction known as the End of the World Train (Tren del Fin del Mundo), the southernmost railway in the world.
    10. Nearby Tierra del Fuego National Park has dramatic scenery, with waterfalls, forests, mountains and glaciers.
  56. Tara anchored at various islands at the north end of the Antarctic Peninsula while working on Antarctic stations in January 2011.
    1. Tara Log: Dundee Island, Wikipedia: Dundee Island
    2. Tara Log: Seymour Island, Wikipedia: Seymore Island
    3. Tara Log: Deception Island, Wikipedia: Deception Island
  57. Tara at Deception Island

    Deception Island             V. Hilaire/Fonds Tara

    Tara at Dundee Island

    Dundee Island             V. Hilaire/Fonds Tara


    Tara at Port Williams

    V. Hilaire/Tara Expéditions

  58. Puerto Williams, Chile
    1. 29 January – 1 February 2011
    2. Wikipedia: Puerto Williams
    3. Wikipedia: Antártica Chilena Province
    4. Wikipedia: Chile
    5. CIA World Factbook: Chile
    6. Language: Spanish
    7. Population: 2,262 (2002)
    8. Indigenous people: Yagán (UNESCO calls the Yagán the most threatened of the Chilean indigenous cultures)
    9. Port on the north side of Isla Navarino facing the Beagle Channel.
    10. Capital of the Chilean Antarctic Province.
    11. Since its foundation in 1953 the settlement has served primarily as a naval base. But recently navy personnel living in Puerto Williams have decreased while civil population has increased. In recent years tourism has contributed to an increase in economic activity at Puerto Williams. Universidad de Magallanes has a university centre in Puerto Williams.
    12. The Martin Gusinde Anthropological Museum: The southernmost museum in the world is in Puerto Williams and preserves the legacy of the anthropologist and priest of Austrian origin who worked with people of the Yagán and Selknam ethnic groups between 1918 and 1924. The facility offers the best ethnographic synthesis on "The Indians of Tierra del Fuego," as he was to call the work published in 1974 that took him over 40 years to write, in which he narrates the life and cruel extinction of these peoples.
    13. Nearby Omora Ethnobotanical Park serves as a research, education and conservation center for the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve.
      Wikipedia: Omora Ethnobotanical Park
      http://www.omora.org/
      http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss2/art49/
    14. Puerto Williams is within the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, which includes marine areas, islands and forested coast.
  59. Next 2 ports of call: The Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests have been designated a "biodiversity hotspot" priority area by Conservation International.

    A virtual continental island bounded by the Pacific Ocean, the Andes Mountains, and the Atacama Desert, the Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests harbors richly endemic flora and fauna.

    The Araucaria tree has been declared a national monument in itself, protecting it from logging. The rare Andean cat, the mountain vizcacha, and the Andean condor can also be found in the hotspot.

    Reptilian, amphibian, and freshwater fish endemism is also particularly high in this region.

    Overgrazing, invasive species, and urbanization have all contributed to the destruction of the original habitat.

    Major hydroelectric dams and the development of coastal areas to increase tourism are two specific problems facing the Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests.

    Tara at Puerto Montt

    V. Hilaire/Tara Expéditions

  60. Puerto Montt, Chile
    1. 18-19 February 2011
    2. Tara log: Caleta Tic Toc (in the channel prior to Puerto Montt), At Marina Oxxean
    3. Wikipedia: Puerto Montt
    4. Wikipedia: Chile
    5. CIA World Factbook: Chile
    6. Language: Spanish
    7. Population: 153,118 in city (2002)
    8. At the northern end of the Reloncaví Sound on the Pacific Ocean
    9. In the summer of 1851, an expedition arrived from Chiloé to begin the clearing of the area and the building of houses for the new inhabitants. The city itself was founded on February 12, 1853, after government-sponsored immigration from Germany that began in 1848 populated the region and integrated it politically to the rest of the country. It was named after Manuel Montt, President of Chile between 1851 and 1861, who set in motion the German immigration.
  61. Tara at Valparaiso

    A. Deniaud/Tara Expéditions

  62. Valparaíso, Chile
    1. 27 February – 7 March 2011
    2. Tara log: Arrival at Valparaiso, In the Wake of Kon-Tiki, Escaping the Tsunami
    3. Wikipedia: Valparaíso
    4. Wikipedia: Chile
    5. CIA World Factbook: Chile
    6. Language: Spanish
    7. Population: 803,683 in metro area. Area population is second highest in country
    8. Spanish explorers arrived in 1536. During Spanish colonial times, Valparaíso remained a small village, with only a few houses and a church.
      After Chile's independence from Spain in 1818, Valparaíso became the main harbour for the nascent Chilean navy, and opened to international trade, which had been limited to commerce with Spain and its other colonies. Valparaíso soon became a required stopover for ships crossing between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, via the Strait of Magellan and Cape Horn, and gained particular importance supporting and supplying the California Gold Rush (1848–1858). In its role as a major seaport, Valparaíso received immigrants from many European countries, mainly from Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland and Italy. German, French, Italian and English were commonly spoken among its citizens, who also had newspapers in these same languages.
      The golden age of Valparaíso's commerce ended after the opening of the Panama Canal (1914), as most ships sought to avoid the Strait of Magellan, and the port's importance and use was reduced substantially.
    9. The Historic Quarter of the Seaport City of Valparaíso is a UNESCO World (cultural) Heritage Site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/959.
  63. Tara at Easter Island

    Tara Expéditions

  64. Easter Island, Chile
    1. 30-31 March 2011
    2. Tara log: Rapa Nui
    3. Wikipedia: Easter Island
    4. Wikipedia: Chile
    5. CIA World Factbook: Chile
    6. Language: Spanish, Rapa Nui (official)
    7. Population: est. 4,888 (2010)
    8. Furthest east in the Polynesian Archipelago.
    9. Environmental degradation and the effects of outside disease and slave trade devastated the population in the 19th century, although the relative dynamics of each of these is disputed.
    10. The large stone statues, or moai, for which Easter Island is world-famous, were carved from 1100-1680 CE (rectified radio-carbon dates). A total of 887 monolithic stone statues have been inventoried on the island and in museum collections so far.
    11. Rapa Nui National Park is a UNESCO World (cultural) Heritage site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/715.
    12. The Polynesia-Micronesia region has been designated a "biodiversity hotspot" priority area by Conservation International.
      Comprising 4,500 islands stretched across the southern Pacific Ocean, the Polynesia-Micronesia hotspot is the epicenter of the current global extinction crisis.
      Twenty-five bird species have gone extinct here since the arrival of the Europeans 200 years ago, victims of introduced invasive species and over-hunting. The spectacular endemic honeycreepers and other forest birds of the Hawaiian Islands are among those that are seriously threatened but still surviving in this hotspot.
  65. Next 3 ports of call: The Tumbes-Chocó-Magdalena region has been designated a "biodiversity hotspot" priority area by Conservation International.

    Tumbes-Chocó-Magdalena is bordered by two other hotspots: Mesoamerica to the north, and the Tropical Andes to the east.

    Endemic animal species like the bare-necked umbrellabird and the brightly-colored poison dart frogs are characteristic of the region. The white-winged guan of Southern Ecuador and extreme northern Peru is seriously threatened with extinction.

    Species continue to decline due to urbanization, hunting, particularly of large birds and mammals, and deforestation, especially coastal mangrove forests. Ecuador's coastal forests have been reduced to only 2 percent of their original coverage area.

    The Galápagos Islands are also encompassed by this region.

    Tara at Guayaquil

    A. Deniaud/Tara Expéditions

  66. Guayaquil, Ecuador
    1. 25-30 April and 16-18 May 2011
    2. Tara log: Docked at Malecon 2000, Return to Guayaquil
    3. Wikipeia: Guayaquil
    4. Wikipedia: Ecuador
    5. CIA World Factbook: Ecuador
    6. Language: Spanish
    7. Population: 3.3 million in metro area (2009)
    8. Port: On the western bank of the Guayas River, which flows into the Pacific Ocean at the Gulf of Guayaquil.
    9. Largest city and main port for Ecuador.
    10. Even before it was founded by the Spanish in 1538, Guayaquil already existed as a native village. On October 9, 1820, almost without bloodshed, a group of civilians, supported by soldiers from the "Granaderos de Reserva", a battalion quartered in Guayaquil, overwhelmed the resistance of the Royalist guards and arrested the Spanish authorities. Guayaquil declared independence from Spain, becoming Provincia Libre de Guayaquil. This would prove to be a key victory for the Ecuadorian War of Independence, which concluded with Ecuador's independence in 1822. Ecuador joined Simón Bolívar's Republic of Gran Colombia - joining with modern day Colombia and Venezuela – only to become a republic in 1830.
  67. Tara at Galapagos

    A. Deniaud/Tara Expéditions

  68. Puerto Baquerizo Moreno, San Cristóbal Island, Galapagos, Ecuador
    1. 7-8 May 2011
    2. Tara Focus: Ecosystem Restoration Project on Floreana Island
    3. Wikipedia: Puerto Baquerizo Moreno
    4. Wikipedia: San Cristóbal Island
    5. Wikipedia: Galapagos Islands
    6. Wikipedia: Ecuador
    7. CIA World Factbook: Ecuador
    8. Language: Spanish
    9. Population: 5,600
    10. On the southwestern coast of San Cristóbal Island, the easternmost island in the Galapagos archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean (just south of the Equator.
    11. Capital of the Galápagos Province.
    12. The HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin first landed in the Galapagos Islands at San Cristóbal Island.
    13. The Galapagos islands and its surrounding waters form an Ecuadorian province, a national park, and a biological marine reserve.
      In 1959, the centenary year of Charles Darwin's publication of The Origin of Species, the Ecuadorian government declared 97.5% of the archipelago's land area a national park, excepting areas already colonised: Galapagos National Park. The Galapagos Marine Reserve was established in 1998 to protect the waters surrounding the Glapagos Islands and the resources they contain.
    14. The Galapagos Islands are a UNESCO World Heritage Site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1. In 2007, UNESCO put the Galapagos Islands on their World Heritage in Danger list because of threats posed by invasive species, unbridled tourism and overfishing. However, on 29 July 2010, the World Heritage Committee decided to remove the Galapagos Islands from the list because the Committee found significant progress had been made by Ecuador in addressing these problems.
    15. In 1984 the islands were designated a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, 2001 this was expanded to include the marine reserve: Archipiélago de Colón–(Galápagos) Biosphere Reserve.
  69. Following 4 ports of call: The Polynesia-Micronesia region has been designated a "biodiversity hotspot" priority area by Conservation International.

    Comprising 4,500 islands stretched across the southern Pacific Ocean, the Polynesia-Micronesia hotspot is the epicenter of the current global extinction crisis.

    Twenty-five bird species have gone extinct here since the arrival of the Europeans 200 years ago, victims of introduced invasive species and over-hunting. The spectacular endemic honeycreepers and other forest birds of the Hawaiian Islands are among those that are seriously threatened but still surviving in this hotspot.

    Focus: Tara in French Polynesia

    Tara at Gambier Islands

    S.d'Orgeval/Tara Expéditions

  70. Totegegie & Mangareva, Gambier Islands, French Polynesia (France)
    1. 22-25 June and 10-13 July 2011
    2. Tara Log: Scientific observations made in the Gambier Islands will be shared, Back to the Village
    3. Wikipedia: Gambier Islands
    4. Wikipedia: French Polynesia
    5. CIA World Factbook: French Polynesia
    6. Language: French and Mangarevan, Tahitian
    7. Population: 1,337 on the Gambier Islands (as of 2007)
    8. At the southeast end of French Polynesia, in the South Pacific Ocean.
    9. The main islands, including Mangareva, are of volcanic origin. Totegegie is an atoll of the surrounding coral reefs.
    10. There was a time (approximately the 10th to the 15th centuries) when the Gambiers hosted a population of several thousand people and traded with other island groups including the Marquesas, the Society Islands and Pitcairn Islands. However, excessive logging by the islanders resulted in almost complete deforestation on Mangareva, with disastrous results for the islands' environment and population.
  71. Tara at Noku Hiva Island, in the Marquesas

    S.d'Orgeval/Tara Expéditions

  72. Hakahau, island of Ua Pu, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia (France)
    1. 21 July - 4 August 2011
    2. Wikipedia: Ua Pu
    3. Wikipedia: Marquesas Islands
    4. Wikipedia: French Polynesia
    5. CIA World Factbook: French Polynesia
    6. Language: French and Tahitian (official), North Marquesan dialect of the Marquesan language
    7. Population: 2,157
    8. Indigenous people: Marquesans (eastern Polynesians)
    9. Port on the South Pacific Ocean
    10. Third largest of the Marquesas Islands
    11. Until the beginning of the 1980s, Ua Pu was the most populous of the Marquesas Islands, because when the other islands were being ravaged by diseases introduced by European explorers and traders, the Catholic priests on the island finally took to quarantining the remnant of the native population inside their churches whenever visiting ships approached the island, thereby reducing their exposure to external diseases.
    12. Mount Oave, reaches to 1,230 m (4,035 ft.) above sea level and is the highest elevation in the Marquesas.
  73. Tara at Papeete

    S.d'Orgeval/Tara Expéditions

  74. Papeete, island of Tahiti, French Polynesia (France)
    1. 14-25 August 2011
    2. Tara log: Leaving the Society Islands
    3. Wikipedia: Papeete
    4. Wikipedia: Tahiti
    5. Wikipedia: French Polynesia
    6. CIA World Factbook: French Polynesia
    7. Language: French (official), Tahitian
    8. Population: 131,695 in urban area (2007)
    9. Indigenous people: Tahitians (Polynesians)
    10. Port on the South Pacific Ocean
    11. Capital of French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France
    12. Tahiti is the highest and largest (and most populous) island in French Polynesia.
    13. Construction of an international airport in association with French nuclear testing nearby has contributed to high immigration. The last test was conducted on 27 January 1996.
  75.      Tara Log: Kiribati: Islands on borrowed time



    Tara at Honolulu

    A.Amiel/Kahikai/Tara Oceans

  76. Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America
    1. 18-27 September 2011
    2. Tara Log: Hawaii, Last Stop in Polynesia
    3. Wikipedia: Honolulu
    4. Wikipedia: Hawaii
    5. Wikipedia: United States of America
    6. CIA World Factbook: United States of America
    7. Language: English and Hawaiian (official)
    8. Population: 390,738 (2010)
    9. Indigenous people: Hawaiians (Polynesians)
    10. Hawaii is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of Australia.
    11. Honolulu is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Hawaii. In the Hawaiian language, Honolulu means "sheltered bay" or "place of shelter".
    12. The earliest habitation in Hawaii supported by archaeological evidence dates to as early as 300 BCE, probably by Polynesian settlers from the Marquesas, followed by a second wave of migration from Raiatea and Bora Bora in the 11th century. The first recorded European contact with the islands was in 1778 by British explorer James Cook. In 1898, the U.S. Congress annexed the Republic to the United States and it became the Territory of Hawaii. In 1900, Hawaii was granted self-governance. Despite several attempts to become a state, Hawaii remained a territory for sixty years. Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states (August 21, 1959).
    13. An archipelago situated some 2,000 mi (3,200 km) southwest of the North American mainland, Hawaii is the southernmost state of the United States and the second westernmost state after Alaska. The state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian Island chain, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles (2,400 km). All the Hawaiian islands were formed from volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called a hotspot. As the tectonic plate beneath much of the Pacific Ocean moves to the northwest, the hot spot remains stationary, slowly creating new volcanoes. Due to the hotspot’s location, the only active volcanoes are located around the southern half of the Big Island. The newest volcano, Lo'ihi Seamount, is located south of the Big Island’s (Hawaii's) coast.
    14. Isolation and the wide range of environments (extreme altitude, tropical climate) produced a vast array of endemic flora and fauna. Hawaii has more endangered species and has lost a higher percentage of its endemic species than any other U.S. state. Several areas in Hawaii are under the protection of the National Park Service. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/409.
    15. The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument is the single largest conservation area under the U.S. flag, and one of the largest marine conservation areas in the world. It encompasses 139,797 square miles of the Pacific Ocean (105,564 square nautical miles) — an area larger than all the country's national parks combined. The Monument is a UNESCO World Heritage Site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1326.
    16. The Waikiki Aquarium in Honolulu is the third oldest aquarium in the United States, having opened in 1904 as the Honolulu Aquarium. It has been administered by the University of Hawaii since 1919, with a mission to inspire and promote understanding, appreciation and conservation of Pacific marine life.
  77. Tara at San Diego

    R.Troublé/Tara Expéditions

  78. San Diego, California, United State of America
    1. 26 October - 23 November 2011
    2. Tara log: San Diego prepares to welcome Tara, Welcome to San Diego, Warmest welcome since Beirut
    3. Wikipedia: San Diego
    4. Wikipedi: California
    5. Wikipedia: United States of America
    6. CIA World Factbook: United States of America
    7. Language: English (official), Spanish is the first language of nearly one third of California residents.
    8. Population: 1,301,617 (2010)
    9. San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest city in the state of California. The city is located on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, immediately adjacent to the Mexican border.
    10. Historically home to the Kumeyaay people, San Diego was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Cabrillo claimed the entire area for Spain. The Presidio and Mission of San Diego, founded in 1769, were the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of newly independent Mexico, and in 1850, became part of the United States following the Mexican-American War and the admission of California to the union.
    11. California is the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area (after Alaska and Texas). California's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west, to the Sierra Nevada mountains in the east—from the Redwood–Douglas-fir forests of the northwest, to the Mojave Desert areas in the southeast. The center of the state is dominated by Central Valley, a major agricultural area. California contains both the highest and lowest points in the contiguous United States (Mount Whitney and Death Valley), and has the third-longest coastline of all states (after Alaska and Florida). Earthquakes are a common occurrence due to the state's location along the Pacific Ring of Fire: about 37,000 are recorded annually.
    12. The Scripps Institution of Oceanography, in La Jolla, just north of San Diego, is America’s oldest and the world’s largest academic ocean, atmosphere, and earth science institution. Founded in 1903, it joined the University of California in 1912. The mission of the Birch Aquarium at Scripps is to provide ocean science education, to interpret Scripps Institution of Oceanography research, and to promote ocean conservation.

  79. Panama City, Panama
  80. Savannah, Georgia, USA
  81. New York, New York, USA
  82. Bermuda (British)
  83. Azores, Portugal
  84. Lorient, France